Here you will find a list with publications related to the basic biology and treatment of painful tendon conditions


164. Smith J, Alfredson H, Masci L, Sellon J, Woods CD. Sonographically guided plantaris tendon release: A cadaveric validation study. PM &R 11 (2019): 56-63.

L. Masci, C. Spang, H. Alfredson. Plantaris tendon and association with mid-portion

Achilles tendinopathy  Is plantaris tendon a contributing factor in mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy?"  (Ref. APUNTS-D-18-00063) has been accepted for publication.  

A. Ruergård, C. Spang, H. Alfredson. Results of minimally invasive Achilles tendon scraping and plantaris tendon removal in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy-a longer-term follow-up study. Sage Open Medicine Vol 7: 1-7, 2019.

Alfredson H, Masci L. Partial ruptures and bone pathology in Patellar Tendinopathy-ultrasound and surgical findings. Rheumatol Orthop Med, 2019 doi: 10.15761/ROM.1000164

Alfredson H, Masci L. Can a normal Achilles tendon rupture? 4 cases in rugby players examined with UTC. Rheumatol Orthop Med, 2019 doi: 10.15761/ROM.1000165.

A. Scott, K Squier, H. Alfredson ICON 2019: International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium Consensus: Clinical Terminology. BJSM 2019.

Vicenzino B, de Vos R,J, Alfredson H et al. ICON 2019-International Scientific Tendinopathy Symposium Consensus: There are 9 core health-related domains for Tendinopathy (CORE DOMAINS): A Delphi Study of Health Care Professionals and Patients. BJSM 2019.

Gaida JE, Alfredson H, Scott A, Mousavizadeh R, Forsgren S. Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon. Scand J Med Sci Sports accepted 2018.

Alfredson H. Achilles and patellar tendons operated in local anesthesia. Am J Anest and pain Med 2018;1(1): 001-002.

Welford P, Alfredson H. Achilles insertion bone pathology not related to pain in a triathlete with cystic fibrosis. J Surg Case Reports 2018, August.

F. Abat, H. Alfredson, M. Cucchiarini, H. Madry, A. Marmotti, C. Mouton, J.M. Oliveira, H. Pereira, G. M. Peretti, D. Romero-Rodriguez, C. Spang, J. Stephen, C. J. A. van Bergen and L. de Girolamo. Current trends in tendinopathy: consensus of the ESSKA basic science
committee. Part II:Treatment options. J Experimental Orthopaedics 5:38, (2018).

H. Alfredson, L Masci, C. Spang. Surgical plantaris removal for patients with plantaris tendon related pain only and a normal Achilles tendon: A case series. BMJ Open Accepted 2018.

F. Abat, H. Alfredson, M. Cucchiarini, H. Madry, A. Marmotti, C. Mouton, J.M. Oliveira9,,H. Pereira, G. M. Peretti, D. Romero-Rodriguez, C. Spang, J. Stephen, C. J. A. van Bergen and L. de Girolamo. Current trends in tendinopathy: consensus of the ESSKA basic science committee. Part I: biology, biomechanics, anatomy and exercise-based approach. Experimental Orthopaedics 4:18, (2017).

Spang C, Alfredson H. Clinical presentation and surgical management of chronic Achilles tendon disorders—A retrospective observation on a set of consecutive patients being operated by the same orthopedic surgeon.

Spang C, Alfredson H. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2017; 17(2):97-103.

Spang C, Renström L, Alfredson H, Forsgren S. Marked expression of TNF receptors inhuman peritendinous tissues including in nerve fascicles with axonal damage-Studies on tendinopathy and tennis elbow. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2017; 17(3):226-236.

Fong G, Backman LJ, Alfredson H, Scott A, Danielson P. The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-B1. PLoS ONE Accepted 2017.


Andersson G, Backman L, Christensen J, Alfredson H. Nerve distributions in insertional Achilles tendinopathy - a comparison of bone, bursae and tendon. Histol Histopathol 2017; 32: 263-270.


Smith J, Alfredson H, Masci L, Sellon J, Woods CD. Differential plantaris-Achilles tendo motion: a sonographic and cadaveric investigation. PM &R Accepted 2016.


Spang C, Alfredson H, Docking SI, Masci L, Andersson G. The plantaris tendon. A narrative review focusing on anatomical features and clinical importance. Bone Joint J 2016; 98-B:1312-1319.


Alfredson H. Low recurrence rate after mini surgery outside the tendon combined with short rehabilitation in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Open J Sports Med 2016;7 :51-54.


Masci L, Spang C, van Shie H, Alfredson H.  How to diagnose plantaris tendon involvement in midportion Achilles tendinopathy - clinical and imaging findings. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders (2016) 17:97.   


Gaida JE, Alfredson H, Forsgren S, Cook Jill L. A pilot study on biomarkers for tendinopathy: lower serum TNF-α and other cytokines in females but not males with Achilles tendinopathy. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation (2016) 8:5.


Spang C, Harandi VM, Alfredson H, Forsgren S. Marked innervation but also signs of nerve degeneration between the Achilles and plantaris tendons and presence of innervation within the plantaris tendon in midportion Achilles tendinopthy. J Mus. Skel Neur Interact 2015.


Alfredson H. Clinical commentary of the Evolution of the treatment for Chronic painful Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy. BJTP-Brazilian J Phys Ther 19(5):429-432, 2015.


Forsgren S, Alfredson H, Andersson G. Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon-presence of the AChRalfa7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue. INTIMP 2015.


Gouveia-Figueira S, Nording ML, Gaida JE, Forsgren S, Alfredson H, Fowler CJ. Serum levels of oxylipins in Achilles tendinopathy: An explanatory study. PLOS ONE April 13, 2015.


Masci L, Spang C, van Schie H TM, Alfredson H. Achilles tendinopathy-do plantaris tendon removal and Achilles scraping improve tendon structure? A prospective study using ultrasound tissue characterisation. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2015;1:e000005 doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2015-000005


Christensen J, Alfredson H, Andersson G. Protease-activated receptors in the Achilles tendon – a potential explanation for the excessive pain signalling in tendinopathy. J Mol Pain 2015.


Alfredson H., Masci L.M. Ultrasound and Doppler-guided surgery for the treatment of Jumper´s knee in professional rugby players. PST Vol.3 No.1 :1-5, 2015.


Alfredson H. Good Results with Painful Eccentric Calf Muscle Training for Patients with Painful Midportion Achilles Tendinosis-Implications for New Treatments. J Novel Physiother, 2014


Alfredson H. Schmerzhaftes exzentrisches Wadenmuskeltraining für Patienten mit Mid-portion-Tendinopathie. Manuelletherapie July 2014; 18:113-116.


Alfredson H.  Successful painful treatment of the painful Achilles was the start for research providing new knowledge about tendon pain and new treatment methods. PST , 2014, 2, 79- 85.



Gaida J, Alfredson H, Forsgren S, Cook J. Decreased tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnf-a) in serum of patients with Achilles tendinopathy: further evidence against the role of inflammation in the chronic stage. BJSM 04/2014; 48(7):597. 


Ruergård A, Alfredson H. Major physical but also psychological effects after pain relieffrom surgical scraping in patients with Achilles tendinopathy-a 1-year follow-up study. Pain studies and treatment PST Vol.2 No.1: 21-25. 2014.
Alfredson H, Isaksson M. Ultrasound and color Doppler-guided surgery for InsertionalAchilles Tendinopathy-results of a pilot study. OJO Vol.4 No.1: 7-14, 2014.
Masci LA, Alfredson H. Promising results using a simple rehabilitation program to treatpartial ruptures in the Achilles midportion. J Biomed Graph Comp Online. Vol 3, No 4, 2013.
Spang C, Alfredson H, Ferguson M, Roos B, Bagge J, Forsgren S. The plantaris tendon in association with midportion Achilles tendinosis-Tendinosis-like morphological features and presence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system. Histol Histopathol 28: 623-632, 2013.
Alfredson H, Spang C, Forsgren S. Unilateral surgical treatment for patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy resulted in bilateral recovery. Br J Sports Med 2012 online Nov 28.
Alfredson H. Midportion Achilles tendinosis and the plantaris tendon. Br J Sports Med 2011; 45:1023-1025.
Backman L, Andersson G, Fong G, Alfredson H, Scott A, Danielson P. Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation triggers Achilles tenocyte hypercellularity: comparison between two model systems. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2012.
Gaida J.E., Bagge J., Purdam C., Cook J.L., Alfredson H., Forsgren S. Evidence of the TNF-a system in the human Achilles tendon: Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) and TNF receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in the tenocytes. Cells Tiss Org 2012; 196:339-352.
Gaida JE, Alfredson H, Kiss ZS, Bass SL, Cook JL. Asymptomatic Achilles tendon pathology is associated with a central fat distribution in men and a peripheral fat distribution in women: a cross sectional study of 298 individuals. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010; 11:41.
Andersson G, Forsgren S, Scott A, Gaida JE, Elgestad Stjernfeldt J, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H, Backman C, Danielson P. Tenocyte hypercellularity and vascular proliferation in a rabbit model of tendinopathy: contralateral effects suggest the involvement of central neuronal mechanisms. Br J Sports Med 2011;45:399-406.
Alfredson H. Eccentric calf muscle training-the story. Editorial. Sportverletz Sportschaden 2010; 24(4): 188-189.
Alfredson H. Editorial. Where to now with Achilles tendon treatment? Br J Sports Med 2011; 45:386.
Alfredson H. Ultrasound and Doppler-guided mini-surgery to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: results of a large material and a randomised study comparing two scraping techniques Br J Sports Med 2011;45 407-410.
Willberg L,  Sunding K,  Forssblad M,  Fahlstrom M, Alfredson H. Sclerosing polidocanol injections or arthroscopic shaving to treat patellar tendinopathy/jumper's knee? A randomised controlled stud. Br J Sports Med 2011;45 411-415.
Andersson G, Forsgren S, Scott A, Gaida JE, Elgestad Stjernfeldt J, Lorentzon R, Alfredson H, Backman C, Patrik Danielson. Tenocyte hypercellularity and vascular roliferation in a rabbit model of tendinopathy: contralateral effects suggest the involvement of central neuronal mechanisms Br J Sports Med 2011;45 399-406.
​Björklund E, Forsgren S, Alfredson H, Fowler CJ. Increased Expression of Cannabinoid CB1 Receptors in Achilles Tendinosis. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(9).
Bagge J, Alfredson H, Physical activity level in Achilles tendinosis is associated with blood levels of pain-related factors: a pilot study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 21(6): 430-438, 2011.
Alfredson H, Masci L, Öhberg L. Partial midportion Achilles tendon ruptures: new sonographic findings helpful for diagnosis. Br J Sports Med 2011; 45:429-432.
Gaida JE, Alfredson L, Kiss ZS, Cook JL, Alfredson H. Dyslipidaemia in Achilles tendinopathy is characteristic of insulin resistance. 2009 Med Sci Sports Exerc Jun;41(6):1194-1197.
Danielsson P, Andersson G, Alfredson H, Forsgren S. Marked sympathetic component in the perivascular innervation of the dorsal paratendinous tissue of the patellar tendon in arthroscopically treated tendinosis patients. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008 Jun;16(6):621-626.
Alfredson H, Zeisig E, Fahlström M. No normalisation of the tendon structure and thickness after intra-tendinous surgery for chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinosis. Br J Sports Med 2009; 43:948-949.
Willberg L, Sunding K, Öhberg L, Forsblad M, Fahlström M, Alfredson H. Sclerosing injections to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: a randomised controlled study evaluating two different concentrations of Polidocanol. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008; 16(9): 859-864.